The basic idea is, the curvature of space corresponds the energy density, which is the source of additional gravitational field in additional global metric (Yilmaz, Heim). Another approach is the modification of MOND theory, which is based on omni-directional expansion of universe (TeVeS of Bekenstein).

The Universe expansion can be considered as a primary source of gravity, as follows from dual role of gravity and universe expansion in quantum mechanics and geometrodynamics. Briefly speaking, the gravity prohibits the expansion of quantum wave of free particle, while the expansion of Universe prohibits the collapse of geons – it means, the gravity field is the dual to Universe expansion, the speed of which is proportional to local vacuum energy density.

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